Graham Edgar

Australian Marine Life by Graham Edgar was first published in 1997 as a hardcover book. In the year 2000, it was revised and released as a softcover.
The author,  Graham Edgar, has been in touch based on my query to the publishers as to just what constituted the revision. The following are the changes made to the original edition.

Thankyou to Dr.Edgar, and to the publishers New Holland,  for providing this information.

Note: Changes to the names and dustributions of the species listed in this book are updated regulrly on the web site: htttp://


p. 51 Encyothalia cliftoni is Encyothalia cliftonii
p. 87 Lithophyllum hyperellum is now Spongites hyperellus (Foslie)Penrose
p. 89 Rhodymenia australis is now Rhodymenia sonderi Silva
p. 105 Posidonia denhartogi is Posidonia denhartogii
p. 105,106 Posidonia kirkmani is Posidonia kirkmanii
p. 114 Tethya australis is now Tethya bergquistae Hooper, 1994
p. 115 Echinoclathria laminaefavosa is now Holopsamma laminaefavosa
p. 142 Isidid sp. 1 is Pteronisis incerta Alderslade, 1998
p. 143 Isidid sp. 2 is Pteronisis plumacea Alderslade, 1998
p. 160 Spirographis spallanzani is now Sabella spallanzani
p. 180 Lysiosquilla perpasta is now Hadrosquilla perpasta
p. 191 Rhynchocinetes rugulosus is now Rhynchocinetes serratus (MilneEdwards, 1837)
p. 193 Alope australiensis is now Alope orientalis (De Man, 1890)
p. 193 Tozeuma kimberi is Tozeuma elongatum (Baker, 1904)
p. 194 Chlorotocella leptorhynchus is Chlorotocella spinicaudus (MilneEdwards, 1837)
p. 198 Callianassa ceramica is now Biffarius ceramicus (Milne Edwards, 1837)
p. 199 Trizopagurus strigimanus is now Strigopagurus strigimanus
p. 203 Cryptodromia octodentata is now Austrodromidia octodentata
p. 203 Petalomera lateralis is now Stimdromia lateralis
p. 204 Philyra laevis is now Dittosa laevis (Bell, 1855)
p. 204 Philyra undecimspinosa is now Dittosa undecimspinosa (Bell, 1855)
p. 216 Sesarma erythrodactyla is now Parasesarma erythodactyla (n.b. both names changed)
p. 223 Callochiton crocina is Callochiton crocinus
p. 225 Chiton pelliserpentis is now Sypharochiton pelliserpentis (Quoy and Gaimard, 1836)
p. 266 Aulacina nivosa is now Cymbiola nivosa
p. 327 Pedicellina sp. is Pedicellina pyriformis Ryland, 1965
p. 317 Sepia sp. is Sepia mestus Gray, 1849
p. 348 Astrostole scabra is now Astrostole scaber
p. 363 Holopneustes pycnotilus is now Holopneustes purpurascens Agassiz, 1872
p. 377 Botrylloides perspicuum is Botrylloides perspicuus
p. 494 Nesogobius hindsbyi is Nesogobius hinsbyi


p. 167 Anoplodactylus evansi photo is of Stylopallene longicauda
p. 175 Upper Elminius modestus photograph is of Elminius covertus
p. 206 Notomithrax minor photograph is of Notomithrax sp.
p. 215 Brachynotus spinosus photograph taken at Cloudy Lagoon not Rocky Cape
p. 215  Leptograpsus variegatus photograph taken at Terrigal, NSW, not Eaglehawk Neck
p. 231 Cosmetalepas concatenatus photo is of Amblychilepas nigrita
p. 231 Amblychilepas nigrita photo is of Amblychilepas  oblonga
p. 232 Notomella bajula photo is of Tugali parmophoidea
p. 240 Phasianotrochus irisodontes photo is of Phasianotrochus rutilus
p. 241 Austrocochlea concamerata photo is all of Austrocochlea porcata
p. 244 Nerita atramentosa photo is Nerita atramentosa and Austrocochlea concamerata
p. 274 Bursatella leachii photo is of Bursatella sp.
p. 314 Octopus kaurna photo at lower right of page is Octopus bunurong
p. 322 Hornera foliacea photo is Hornera robusta
p. 322 Biflustra perfragilis photo is Steginoporella chartacea
p. 351 Smilasterias tasmaniae photo at page bottom replaced by new photo of Smilasterias multipara.
p. 351 Smilasterias multipara photo at upper page is Smilasterias irregularis
p. 444 Pelates octolineatus photograph taken by Barry Hutchins


p. 167 Anoplodactylus evansi should be replaced by Stylopallene longicauda Stock, 1973
Habitat: Moderately exposed reef; 10-22 m depth.
Distribution: Western Port, Vic., and around Tas.
Maximum size: Length to 30 mm.
Stylopallene longicauda has a pale cream body and legs with dark blue or black bands. The species is relatively common on Tasmanian reefs, and is often found in association with the bryozoan Amathia biseriata. Another banded species commonly seen by divers, Anoplodactylus evansi, possesses a dark red basal colour, blue bands and yellow joints.
p. 230 Cosmetalepas concatenatus should be replaced by
Amblychilepas oblonga (Menke, 1843)
Habitat: Moderately exposed reef; 0-6 m depth.
Distribution: Geraldton, WA, to Western Port, Vic.
Maximum size: Shell length to 28 mm.
Amblychilepas oblonga has an oval shell with pale-cream basal colour and broad reddish rays. It avoids sunlight so lives under rocks or in crevices, and is not often seen alive.
p. 232 Notomella bajula should be replaced by
Tugali parmophoidea (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834)
Habitat: Under rocks on moderately exposed reef; 0-12 m depth.
Distribution: SA to NSW.
Maximum size: Length to 25 mm.
Tugali parmophoidea has a small white shell with numerous fine radial ribs crossed by slightly weaker concentric ridges It is a slit limpet, and therefore related to the keyhole limpets and abalone, but has an inconspicuous groove on the underside rather than the pronounced slit in the front of the shell seen in two other slit limpets that are relatively
common in southern Australia (Notomella bajula and Notomella candida). The slits and grooves serve the same respiratory and excretory functions as the holes in keyhole limpets and abalone.
p. 240 Phasianotrochus irisodontes should be replaced by
Phasianotrochus rutilus (Adams, 1851)
Habitat: Sheltered seaweed; 0-5 m depth.
Distribution: SA to Vic., and around Tas.
Maximum size: Height to 15 mm.
Phasianotrochus rutilus can usually be identified by its green-brown shell covered by wavy lines, an iridescent sheen to the interior and squat rounded appearance. A similar species that occurs abundantly on seagrasses rather than seaweeds in the region, Phasianotrochus irisodontes, lacks the wavy lines and has a greener shell. Shells of both species were used by Tasmanian Aboriginal tribes for making necklaces.
p. 273 Bursatella leachii should be replaced by Bursatella sp.
Habitat: Moderately exposed seagrass, reef, sand; 3-22 m depth.
Distribution: Perth to Albany, WA.
Maximum size: Length to 100 mm.
Bursatella sp. is easily recognised by the distinctive covering of light-coloured hairs and tufted processes on the body. The background colour is black, with small blue-green spots. A related species, Bursatella leachii, occurs in the tropics.
p. 306 Tawera lagopus should be replaced by
Tawera gallinula (Lamarck, 1818)
Habitat: Moderately exposed sand; 0-40 m depth.
Distribution: Southern W.A. to N.S.W., and around Tas.
Maximum size: Length to 40 mm.
Tawera gallinula has numerous concentric ridges on the outside of the shell, and a row of fine serrations around the outer margin where the valves contact each other.  The valves are marked by brown blotches arranged in radiating bands.   A related species, Tawera lagopus;, has weaker concentric ridges and a white interior.  Both species are moderately
common on sand off sheltered ocean beaches.
p. 322 Hornera foliacea should be replaced by
Hornera robusta (MacGillivray, 1883)
Habitat: Moderately exposed reef; 5-30 m depth.
Distribution: Vic. and around Tas. Also N.Z.
Maximum size: Colony length to 120 mm.
Hornera robusta is a beautiful lace-like species with branches repeatedly divided into smaller branchlets.  This bryozoan is moderately common on reefs protected from water turbulence. A similar relative, Hornera foliacea, can be distinguished by numerous interconnections between branches.
p. 322 Biflustra perfragilis should be replaced by
Steginoporella chartacea (Lamarck, 1816)
Habitat: Exposed reef; 6-70 m depth.
Distribution: Gulf St Vincent, SA, to southern NSW. and northern Tas.
Maximum size: Colony length to 500 mm.
Steginoporella chartacea forms folded yellow-orange colonies made up of interconnected sheets with zooids on both sides. It also occasionally forms encrusting single-sided colonies over rock. The species is normally seen on vertical walls or under overhangs, and has sometimes been called Steginoporella truncata.


p. 53   Lessonia corrugata  Distribution: Phillip I, Vic., and around Tas.
p. 53   Undaria pinnatifida  Distribution: Port Phillip Bay, Vic., and D'Entrecasteaux Channel to Coles Bay.
p. 144  Sarcoptilus grandis  Distribution: Albany, WA, to Cape Hawke, NSW, and around Tas.
p. 196  Jasus verreauxi  Distribution: Port MacDonnell, SA, to Tweed Heads, NSW, and northeastern Tas.     Also New Zealand.
p. 201  Petrolistes elongatus Distribution: Eastern Tas. Also New Zealand.
p. 288  Musculista senhousia Distribution: Swan River estuary, WA, Port Phillip Bay, Vic., and Tamar estuary,     Tas. Also East Asia, California, New Zealand.
p.363   Holopneustes inflatus Distribution: Victoria to NSW and around Tas.
p.503   Acanthaluteres vittiger Distribution: Dongara, WA, to Coffs Harbour, NSW, and around Tas.


p. 5  Crustaceans: Dr G.C.B. Poore, Dr C.M. McLay, Dr P. Davie
p. 5  Echinoderms, crustaceans: Mr T. O'Hara
p. 19   Trochodesmium  should read Trichodesmium
p. 56  pinnatifida
p. 143  sclerites
p. 156  strategy
p. 167  Length to 45 mm. (Pseudopallene ambigua)
p. 168  millipedes
p. 175  with E. covertus or E. modestus ..
p. 190  Macrobrachium intermedium: ...and a second spine lower down, its tip falling well short of the front carapace  edge.
p. 191  Macrobrachium sp.: .....the tip of the lower spine below the eyejust reaching the front edge of the carapace.
p. 193  Length to 50 mm. (Tozeuma elongatum)
p. 196  species J. edwardsii
p. 197  .. genus Scyllarus with blue ..
p. 203  Cancer novaezealandiae
p. 204  identified
p. 213  Mallacoota, Vic.,
p. 224  turquoise
p. 241  ..height less than or equal to width (see photo p.244). The colour ..
p. 245  Yeppoon
p. 258  extremely
p. 298  Katelysia
p. 317  its specific identity remained unknown until recently. Sepia mestus characteristically  ..
p. 332  Aporometra occidentalis: Distribution: Yanchep, WA, to Bass Strait, Vic.
p. 334  Also widespread
p. 346  Patiriella vivipara is known from several small areas ..
p. 349  Asterias amurensis: having distinctly pointed arms and one row of spines (as opposed to two) along the  ambulacral groove on the underside.
p. 350  Solitary Is,  southern Queensland
p. 351  Nuyts Archipelago
p. 372   Balanoglossus australiensis, is found from Western Port to Sydney.
p. 403  Schneider
p. 463  unmistakable
p. 497  barracudas
p. 514  Yeppoon
p. 515  unmistakable
p. 517  presumably
p. 529  Oligochaetes, leeches in bold
p.536-544 Numerous changes to index.


p.527 . and many of the larger red algae (Womersley, 1994, 1996, 1998).
Unfortunately, this series remains to be completed, with one further volume on red algae pending.
Kraft, G.T. & W.J. Woelkerling (1990) Rhodophyta. Pp. 41-85, in Biology of Marine Plants, M.N. Clayton & R.J. King (eds), Longman Cheshire, Melbourne.
Womersley, H.B.S. (1996) The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia.
Rhodophyta - Part IIIB. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.
Womersley, H.B.S. (1998) The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia.
Rhodophyta - Part IIIC. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

p.528 the local Tethya species, and Hooper (1996) describes a major family.
Hooper, J.N.A. (1996) Revision of Microcionidae (Porifera: Poecilosclerida:
Demospongiae), with description of Australian species. Memoirs of theQueensland Museum, vol. 40, pp. 1-626.

p.528 Verseveldt (1977). Cairns & Parker (1992) provide a comprehensivecoverage of the temperate scleractinian corals, Carter (1995) describes new ceriantharians, Williams (1995) describes seapens and Alderslade (1998)
describes gorgonians.
Alderslade, P. (1998) Revisionary systematics in the gorgonian family
Isididae, with descriptions of numerous new taxa (Coelenterata:
Octocorallia). Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement No.55, 1-359.
Williams, G.C. (1995) Revision of the pennatulacean genus Sarcoptilus (Coelenterata: Octocorallia), with descriptions of three new species from southern Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum, vol. 28, pp.

p.529 The only recent publications dealing with several species of southern Australian nemerteans are Gibson (1990, 1997).
Gibson, R. (1997) Nemerteans (Phylum Nemertea). Pp. 905-974, in "Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia. Part III", S.A. Shepherd & M. Davies (eds), South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide.

p.529 Hutchings & McRae, 1993; Hartman-Schröder & Parker, 1995).
Hartmann-Schröder, G. & S.A. Parker (1995) Four new species of the family Opheliidae (Polychaeta) from southern Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum, vol. 28, pp. 1-12.

p.530 The only major studies of Australian pycnogonids are an outdated publication by Clark (1963) and recent guide by Staples (1997).
Staples, D. (1997) Sea spiders or pycnogonids (Phylum Arthropoda). Pp. 1040-1072, in "Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia. Part III", S.A. Shepherd & M. Davies (eds), South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide.

p.530 by Cheng (1976), and local species are discussed by Andersen & Weir (1994) and Matthews & Queale (1997).
Andersen, N.M. & T.A. Weir (1994) The sea skaters, genus Halobates Eschscholtz (Hemiptera: Gerridae), of Australia: taxonomy, phylogeny and zoogeography. Invertebrate Taxonomy, vol. 8, pp. 861-909.
Matthews, E.G. and L.E. Queale (1997) Littoral insects (Phylum Arthropoda). Pp. 1073-1091, in "Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia. Part III", S.A. Shepherd & M. Davies (eds), South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide.

p.531 Wright (1988), Yassini & Jones (1995) and Yassini et al. (1995).
Most species can be placed into genera using Kornicker (1975).
Yassini, I., B.G. Jones, R.J. King, M. Ayress & K.T. Dewi (1995) Ostracod fauna associated with sublittoral kelp forest vegetation at Windang Island, New South Wales, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 46, pp.
Yassini, I. & B.G. Jones (1995) Foraminiferida and Ostracoda from Estuarine and Shelf Environments on the Southeastern Coast of Australia. University of Wollongong Press, Wollongong, NSW.
Kornicker, L.S. (1975) Antarctic Ostracoda (Myodocopina). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, no. 163, pp. 1-720.

p.533 The best general guides to bivalves are Lamprell & Whitehead (1992) and Lamprell and Healy (1998);
Lamprell, K. & J. Healy (1998) Bivalves of Australia. Vol. 2. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.

p.533 The only general work available on these groups specific to Australia is Lamprell & Healy (1998). Small ..
Lamprell, K. & J. Healy (1998) A Revision of the Scaphopoda from Australian waters (Mollusca). Records of the Australian Museum, Supplement 24, pp. 1-189.

p.534 The only guide available for identifying brachiopods is Richardson (1997).
Richardson, J.R. (1997) Brachiopods (Phylum Brachiopoda). Pp. 999-1027, in "Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia. Part III", S.A. Shepherd & M. Davies (eds), South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide.

p.534 Australian phoronids are best identified using Emig et al. (1977) and Shepherd (1997), with .. Shepherd, S.A. (1997) Phoronids (Phylum Phoronida). Pp. 993-998, in "Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia. Part III", S.A. Shepherd & M. Davies (eds), South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide.

Australian entoprocts are described by Wasson (1995) and Wasson & Shepherd (1997). Wasson, K. (1995) The kamptozoan Pedicellina whiteleggii Johnston & Walker, 1917 and other pedicellinids in Australia and New Zealand. Records of the South Australian Museum, vol. 28, pp. 131-141.
Wasson, K. and S.A. Shepherd (1997) Nodding Heads (Phylum Kamptozoa or Entoprocta). Pp. 975-992, in "Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia.
Part III", S.A. Shepherd & M. Davies (eds), South Australian Research and
Development Institute, Adelaide.

p.534 Nyan Taw (1978), O'Sullivan (1982) and Lutschinger (1993).
Lutschinger, S. (1993) The marine fauna of New Zealand: Chaetognatha (arrow worms). New Zealand Oceanographic Memoir No. 101, pp. 1-61.

p.534 The major references to southern Australian echinoderms are Shepherd & Thomas (1982) and Rowe & Gates (1995), with the publication Rowe, F.W.E. & J. Gates (1995) Echinodermata. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 33. CSIRO, Melbourne.

The only guide to southern Australian hemichordates is Shepherd (1997).
Shepherd, S.A. (1997) Acorns worms and a pterobranch (Phylum Hemichordata).
Pp. 1028-1039, in "Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia. Part III", S.A. Shepherd & M. Davies (eds), South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide.

p.534 A general overview (Kott, 1997) and recent revisions of Australian ascidians have been made by Kott
Kott, P. (1997) Tunicates (Subphylum Tunicata). Pp. 1092-1255, in "Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia. Part III", S.A. Shepherd & M. Davies (eds), South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide.

p.535 Last & Stevens (1994) and cephalochordates by Richardson & McKenzie (1994).
Richardson, B.J. & A.M. McKenzie (1994) Taxonomy and distribution of Australian cephalocordates (Chordata: Cephalochordata). Invertebrate Taxonomy, vol. 8, pp. 1443-1459.